ISSN 1311-9109 Journal Content





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International Symposium
on Production and Establishment of Micropropagated Plants
April 19-24, 2015,
Sanremo, Italy


Propagation of Ornamental Plants
12(1): 3-10, 2012

IN VITRO PROPAGATION METHODS OF ORNAMENTAL CONIFERS
WITH EMPHASIS ON SPRUCE SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

Mohamed Elhiti1 and Claudio Stasolla*

Department of Plant Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, R3T 2N2, Manitoba, Canada, *Fax: + 1 204-474-7528, *E-mail: stasolla@ms.umanitoba.ca
1
Current address: Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta,
31527 Egypt


Abstract
Over the last decades protocols have been developed for the propagation of several ornamental coniferous species, including spruce which is one of the most responsive to culture conditions. Somatic embryogenesis in spruce consists of distinct steps including induction, proliferation, development and maturation. Embryogenic tissue is induced from juvenile explants and proliferated in the presence of auxins and cytokinins. Applications of abscisic acid are commonly used to stimulate the formation of somatic embryos which become fully developed after a few weeks in culture. In order to germinate at high frequency, these embryos must undergo a maturation process needed to terminate the developmental program and initiate germination. Maturation is encouraged by lowering the water status of the embryos by supplementing the medium with osmoticum agents and/or by desiccating the embryos with different drying treatments. The aim of this review is to examine the major steps for inducing somatic embryos in spruce species and to outline the importance of specific culture addenda.

Key words: abscisic acid, maturation, polyethylene glycol



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